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Nowadays it is used by many popular open source projects, e.g., the Android or the Eclipse developer teams, as well as many commercial organizations.
A Git repository contains the history of a collection of files starting from a certain directory.
Ubuntu (apt), Cent OS, Fedora and Red Hat (rpm/YUM) Linux server administration and desktop systems adminstration are covered in this tutorial.
This tutorial explains the usage of the distributed version control system Git via the command line.
A branch allows the user to switch between these versions so that he can work on different changes independently from each other.
For example, if you want to develop a new feature, you can create a branch and make the changes in this branch.
This way a branch defines its own line of descendants in the overall version graph formed by all commits in the repository.
Of course, version control systems are not limited to text files, they can also handle other types of files.
For example, you may use a VCS to track the different versions of a png file.
This is typically done via a repository running on a server which is, unlike the local machine of a developer, always online.
Typically, there is a central server for keeping a repository but each cloned repository is a full copy of this repository.